Secondary activities or Manufacturing: Changes of raw materials into products after value addition in order to make them more suitable for the purpose of use to people are termed as secondary activities or manufacturing.
Industrial systems: Industrial systems consist of inputs, processes and outputs.
Feeder industry: Feeder industry is the industry whose products are used as raw materials in other industries. Example: Iron and Steel Industry.
Smelting: Smelting is the process in which, metals are extracted from their ores by heating beyond their melting points. Example: Iron smelting, Copper smelting, Aluminium smelting.
NCERT Textbook Exercise Questions (Important only)
Q.1: Answer the following questions:
(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?
(ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?
(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of the modern industry and why?
(iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?
(v) What are the similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California?
(i) Industry means an economic activity that is related to production of goods, extraction of minerals and the provision of services. Examples for the above are – Iron and Steel Industry, Coal Mining Industry and Tourism Industry respectively.
(ii) Main factors which influence the location of an industry are listed below:
• availability of raw materials
• transport and communication
(iii) Iron and steel industry is often referred to as the backbone of the modern industry. This is because that almost everything is either made from iron or steel or has been made using tools and machineries of these metals. There are plenty of examples like -ships, trains, vehicles; all are made largely of steel. Materials of our day-to-day use starting safety pin to our building in which we live, are made from steel. Without the use of iron no industry can run.
(iv) Cotton textile rapidly expanded in Mumbai because its warm, moist climate, facility of port for importing of machinery and above all the easy availability of skilled labor.
(v) Similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California can be drawn as follows:
• Bangalore is located in Deccan Plateau while Silicon Valley in California is located next to the Rocky Mountains.
• Both have clean environment.
• Pleasant climate throughout the year.
• In the vicinity of educational, scientific and technological centers.
• Close to major roads and airports.
• Good access to markets.
• Both have skilled work force.
• Low or affordable cost of living.
Q.2: Tick the correct answer:
(i) Silicon valley is located in
(ii) Which one of the following industries is known as sunrise industry?
a. Iron and Steel industry
b. Cotton industry
c. Information technology
(iii) Which one of the following is a natural fiber?
Ans: (i)b (ii)c (iii)b
Q.3: Distinguish between the followings:
(i) Agro-based and mineral-based industries.
(ii) Public sector and Joint sector industries.
Ans: (i) The distinction between agro-based and mineral-based industries can be done as follows –
Agro-based industries Mineral-based industries
• Agro-based industries use plant and animal based products as raw materials.
• These industries provide employment in rural areas.
• Agro-based industries are mostly in private or co-operative sectors.
• Examples of such industries are – jute, cotton textile, dairy products, leather industries etc. • Mineral-based industries are those that use mineral ores as their raw materials.
• They provide employment to both rural and urban areas.
• These industries are mostly in public sector because of their large investment requirement.
• Examples of such industries are – iron and steel, capital goods industries etc.
(ii) The distinction between public sector and joint sector industries can made as follows –
Public sector industries Joint sector industries
• The industries which are owned and operated by State Govt. or Central Govt. are called public sector industries.
• They involve huge capital investments.
• These industries are managed and run by workforce appointed by Govt.
• Examples are Steel authority of India limited (SAIL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) etc. • The industries which are owned and operated by Govt. and an individual or a group of individuals are called joint sector industries.
• Capital investments are generally less than the public sector industries.
• Both Govt. servants and private employees run these industries.
• Example – Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL).
Short type Questions with their Answers
Q.1: What are two stages of making notebook from pulp?
Ans: Making paper from pulp and then notebook from paper.
Q.2: What does industrial system consists of?
Ans: It consists of three things: (i) inputs, (ii) process and (iii) outputs.
Q.3: Name clothes which were famous all over the world before the British came to India.
Ans: These are hand woven clothes like Muslins of Dhaka, Chintzes of Masulipatnam, Calicos of Calicut and gold-wrought pieces of Burhanpur, Surat and Vadodara, which were famous for their quality and design.
Q.4: Which factor resulted in the rapid expansion of cotton textile industry in Mumbai region?
Ans: These factors are –
1. warm moist climate
2. port for importing machineries and exporting manufactured goods
3. Availability of raw materials and skilled labour.
Q.5: What is ‘information technology’? What is the main reason for its rapid growth?
Ans: The information industry deals in the storage, processing and distribution of information (data). This industry could make a fast progress and became global due to a series of technological, political and socio-economic events.
Q.6: What are the factors of location for IT Industry?
Ans: The main factors of location for IT industry are availability of resource, cost and infrastructure.
Long type Questions with their Answers
Q.1: How industries are classified? Or Write a short note on the various classifications of industries.
Ans: Industries are classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership. On the basis of these criteria industries can be further classified as follows:
I. On the basis of Raw Materials
a. Agro based industries
b. Mineral based industries
c. Forest based industries
II. On the basis of Size
a. Large scale industries
b. Small scale industries
III. On the basis of Ownership
a. Private sector industries
b. Public sector industries
c. Joint sector industries
d. Co-operative industries
Q.2: How industries are classified on the basis of their Raw materials?
Ans: On the basis of the raw materials used by different industries, they can be classified as follows –
(a) Agro based industries: Industries which use products based on plants and animals as their raw materials are called as ‘Agro based industries’. For example, food processing, cotton textile, dairy products, leather industries etc.
(b) Mineral based industries: These are the primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries are used by other industries. For example, iron and steel industry, copper industry etc.
(c) Marine based industries: Industries using products from the sea and oceans as raw materials are termed as ‘Marine based industries’. For example, sea food processing industry, fish oil industry etc.
(d) Forest based industries: Industries which use forest products as their raw materials are termed as ‘Forest based industries’. Example, pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture etc.
Q.3: How industries are classified on the basis of Size?
Ans: The term ‘Size’ for an industry is often used to indicate the capital invested, manpower engaged and the volume of production of that industry. On the basis of size, industries can be classified as follows –
(a) Small scale industries: These are the industries which use lesser amounts of raw material, capital and technology. Cottage or House-hold industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by the artisans by hand. Silk weaving, food processing etc. are examples of small scale industries.
(b) Large scale industries: Under this category comes those industries which large amount of raw materials for their huge production, large capital investment and superior technology. Examples of large scale industries are iron and steel industries, capital goods industries, automobile industries etc.
Q.4: How industries are classified on the basis of Ownership?
Ans: Industries can be classified on the basis of its ownership as mentioned below –
(a) Private sector industries: Private sector industries are owned and operated by an individual or a group of individuals. For example, TISCO, Reliance Industries Limited etc.
(b) Public sector industries: These industries are owned and operated by the Govt., such as Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), HAL etc.
(c) Joint sector industries: Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the Govt. as well as an individual or a group of individuals. Example – Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL).
(d) Co-operative sector industries: Co-operative sector industries are those industries which are owned and operated by the suppliers of raw materials, workers or both of them. Examples of such industries are – Anand Milk Union Ltd., Sudha Dairy etc.
Q.5: What is Industrial Disaster? Give some steps of Risk Reduction Measures (steps to minimize the risks of industrial disaster).
Ans: ‘Industrial Disaster’ is a term used for accidents or disasters which sometimes happen in industries mainly due to technical failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous materials. Some examples of unforgettable industrial disasters in the history are – Bhopal Gas Incident of Union Carbide, Gas Well Blowout of Gao Qiao in China.
The steps of risk reduction measures are as follows:
1) Densely populated residential areas should be separated far away from the industrial areas.
2) People staying near the industrial areas should be kept informed of the storage of hazardous materials and the possible escapes from the effects of such materials.
3) Fire warning and fighting system should be improved.
4) Storage capacity of toxic substances should be limited.
5) Pollution dispersion qualities in the industries should be improved.