1: Match the following –
1. Gurjara Pratiharas
4. Cholas a. Western Deccan
c. Gujarat and Rajasthan
d. Tamil Nadu
Ans: 1-c, 2-a, 3-b, 4-d.
Q.2: Who were the parties involved in the “tripartite struggle”?
Ans: The parties involved in the “tripartite struggle” were the rulers belonging to the Gurjara – Pratihara, Rastrakuta and Pala dynasties who fought for the control over Kanauj. Because there were three parties in this long drawn conflict, historians often describe it as the “tripartite struggle”.
Q.3: What were the qualifications necessary to become a member of a committee of the Sabha in the Chola Empire?
Ans: The qualifications necessary to become a member of the committee of the Sabha in the Chola Empire were as follows –
a. Owner of land from which land revenues were collected.
b. Should have had own homes.
c. Should have been of age between 35 and 70 years.
d. Must have knowledge of Vedas.
e. Must be honest and well versed in administrative matters.
Q.4: What were the two major cities under the control of the Chahamanas?
Ans: The two major cities under the control of the Chahamanas were – Indraprastha and Kanauj.
Q.5: How did the Rastrakutas become powerful?
Ans: In mid-eighth century, Dantidurga, a Rastrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overload and performed a ritual called Hiranya-garbha. When this ritual was performed with the help of Brahmans, it was thought to lead to the rebirth of the sacrifice as Kshatriya even if he was not Kshatriya by birth. In this way the Rastrakutas become powerful.
Q.6: What did the new dynasties do to gain acceptance?
Ans: By the seventh century there were big landlords or warrior chiefs in different regions of the subcontinent. Existing kings often acknowledged them as their subordinates or samantas. They were expected to bring gifts for their kings or overloads, be present at their courts and provide them with military support. As samantas gained power and wealth, they declared themselves to be maha-samanta, maha-mandaleshvara (the great lord of a region) and so on. Sometimes, they asserted their independence from their overloads.
Q.8: What were the activities associated with Chola empire?
Ans: Chola temples often became the nuclei of settlements which grew around them. These were centers of craft production. Temples were also endowed with land rulers as well as by others. The produce of this land went for maintaining all the specialists who worked at the temples and very often lived near it like – priests, garland makers, cooks, sweepers, musians, dancers etc. In other words, temples were not only places of worship; they were the hub of economic, social and cultural life as well.
Q.1: What are ‘Prashastis’?
Ans: Prashastis were the certificates which contained details that may not be literally true. They tell us how rulers wanted to depict themselves as valiant, victorious warriors. These were composed by learned Brahmanas who occasionally helped in the administration.
Q.2: What is Hiranya Garbha?
Ans: Hiranya Garbha literally means the golden womb. It is a ritual which was performed by Dantidurga, a Rastrakuta chief.